ince the late 1990s, I have been researching the use of high-performance, advanced networks for musical purposes. In October of 1999, while still a professor at the University of Oklahoma, I demonstrated the potential for using high-performance networks to teach music when I conducted the very first demonstration of a music lesson using uncompressed audio and video over Internet2 from Seattle, WA to Oklahoma City, OK. Since that time, advanced network videoteleconferencing (VTC) technology has provided an extraordinary opportunity to develop musical and academic programs of instruction in a wide of range of educational and professional settings. The USC Thornton School of Music can now reach out to students, professionals and music aficionados of all types in virtually any geographic region of the United States and across the globe.
Internet2 is a consortium of 200+ universities (pdf) in the U. S. working in partnership with industry and government in the same spirit that fostered the current Internet, to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies to accelerate the creation of tomorrow's Internet. Additionally, Internet2 has International Partners (pdf) across the globe that allow Internet2 members access to institutions around the world. Part of that development in advanced network applications is in the arena of high-quality videoteleconferencing. As anyone who has spent any time on the commodity or commercial Internet knows, the quality of audio and video is still rather primitive. Audio streams are highly compressed and often monaural, and the video quality is usually worse. The typical video file on the Internet opens in a small window on the computer monitor and usually has grainy and jerky motion. The incredible bandwidth of Internet2, however, allows for real-time, bi-directional, full-motion, broadcast-quality video on a full-size television monitor with full fidelity, stereo—and even multi-track—audio. With that quality, comes the potential for finally using Internet videoteleconferencing for music applications.
When people think of uses for high-performance networking, they often think in terms of the hard sciences. However, the arts and humanities have been one of the greatest benefactors of Internet2. If a large data file is delayed a tiny fraction of a second in moving from one location to another, there usually isn't much of a concern. However, even a few milliseconds of delay in a video or audio stream can have catastrophic results for music and performance. With Internet2, we can send and receive uncompressed, "broadcast-quality" audio and video simultaneously. Due to the complex issues associated with audio and music, having a VTC stream that conveys the entire audio spectrum is essential for effective musical teaching at the collegiate and professional level. Thus, student and teacher can now be in remote locations yet still see and hear each with the kind of quality needed to make critical, aesthetic judgments.
Chronology of My Internet2 Research Highlights
I am an active member of the Internet2 Performance Events Advisory Committee, and my work and research into the musical uses of Internet2 (pdf) and other advanced networks like the National Lambda Rail is ongoing. Although activities occur almost daily in this work, here is a chronology of some of my more important highlights and milestones.
Prior to Arriving at USC
|Receiving my 2nd IDEA Award for EchoDamp from Tom Knab, Chair of the Internet2 IDEA Award Judging Committee|
- June 25, 2013: Presented the first demonstration to a U.S. K-12 audience of LOLA, the new low-latency videoconference system that allows simultaneous musical interactions. In this presentation to the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) annual conference, a singer in San Antonio, TX performed with a pianist in Los Angeles, CA (approximately 1300 miles apart). A brief YouTube video shows the amount of musical interaction possible with this amazing new technology.
- March 12, 2013: Echo Control for Sound Critical Videoteleconferences (pdf) and ECHODamp demonstration to the Trans-European Research and Educational Network Association (TERENA) Network Performing Arts Production Workshop in Vienna, Austria.
- November 14, 2012: The Global Village Gets a Music School (pdf) the Keynote Address to the Distance Learning Workshop of the College Music Society National Conference in San Diego, CA.
- September 19, 2012: But What About the Audio? Sound Solutions for Musical Collaborations (pdf) at the Royal College of Music in London, UK.
- June 16-17, 2011: Presented But, What About the Sound? (pdf) and ECHODamp to the TERENA (Trans-European Research and Educational Network Association) Network Performing Arts Production Workshop at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona Spain.
- June 9, 2011: Presented But, What About the Sound? a demonstration of audio quality possibilities on high-performance networks to the US Ignite Performance Demo sponsored by The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, The National Science Foundation, and hosted by Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH.
- March 7, 2011: Presented Audio Issues in High-Performance-Network Musical Collaborations (pdf) • Archived Video (High Res | Low Res) • CENIC (Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California) 2011 Annual Conference in Irvine, CA.
- December 15, 2010: Presented Audio Mixing and Echo Cancellation in the Distributed Performance (pdf) to the CineGrid International Workshop 2010 in San Diego, CA.
- November 22-24, 2010: Presented two lectures on Audio and Echo Cancellation (pdf) with ECHODamp to the TERENA Network Performing Arts Production Workshop at IRCAM in Paris, France.
- September 25, 2010: Presented Echo Control for the High-Performance Network Musical Videoconference (pdf) to the Association for Technology in Music Instruction (ATMI) Annual Conference in Minneapolis, MN.
- June 10, 2010: Presented What About Sound? Audio in Sound-Critical Videoteleconferences (pdf) to the New Media Consortium (NMC) Summer Conference in Anaheim, CA. (presentation won the "Judges' Choice" award at the conference)
- April 27, 2010: In recognition of the importance of my audio mixing and echo control software ECHODamp to musical and performing arts videoteleconferencing, Internet2 honored me with a 2nd IDEA Award for my work.
- April 27-28, 2010: Attended the Internet2 Spring Member Meeting where I made two presentations on ECHODamp and participated as a member at the Performance Events Advisory Committee meeting.
- March 1, 2010: Jim Babor, percussion instructor at the USC Thornton School of Music, and Principal Percussion with the Los Angeles Philharmonic coached percussion students at the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, FL as they prepared for upcoming orchestral auditions.
- February 19, 2010: Produced Music in Two Places at Once a joint Vocal Arts Master Class between the USC Thornton School of Music and the Manhattan School of Music organized by Cynthia Munzer at USC. Professor Munzer coached students in New York, and Professor Gordon Ostrowski at the Manhattan School of Music worked with our students in Los Angeles (watch the video).
- January 25-27, 2010: Conducted and taught the audio sessions, including Optimizing Audio for the High-Bandwidth Musical Videoteleconference (pdf) and a special session on using ECHODamp, for the Internet2/New World Symphony Performance Master Class and Production Workshop in Miami Beach, FL.
- November 9, 2009: After nearly 10 years of research into audio quality issues and echo control for musical videoteleconferences, I released ECHODamp, the only audio mixing and echo control software designed specifically for the musical videoteleconference. ECHODamp is available free to non-profit educational and performing arts institutions and runs on both the Macintosh and Windows platform.
- October 27, 2009: The Chronicle of Higher Education published a feature on ECHODamp in their Wired Campus column.
- October 7, 2009: Just one week before the big rivalry football game, Professor Cynthia Munzer at USC conducted a Vocal Arts Master Class with students at Notre Dame University. In keeping with the spirit of the upcoming game, the session ended with dueling fight songs transmitted over Internet2!
- October 6, 2009: Participated remotely—via Internet2—to the Performance Events Advisory Committee meeting at the Internet2 Fall Member Meeting.
|EchoDamp is a full-featured audio mixer and echo controller designed specifically for the high-bandwidth musical videoteleconference|
- July 13-15, 2009: Presented several sessions on audio for videoteleconferencing at the first-ever Performing Arts Production Workshop hosted by the Trans-European Research and Educational Network Association (TERENA) in Trieste, Italy.
- July 7, 2009: As part of Paul Bauer's (Chair, School of Music at Northern Illinois University) in-person presentation, I made a virtual presentation on the use of high-performance, advanced networks like Internet2 for musical purposes to the World Association of Symphonic Bands and Ensembles International Conference held in Cincinnati, OH.
- March 9, 2009: Produced a videoconference demonstration and performance for the Educational Advisory Board of Avid who were meeting at the Berklee College of Music in Boston. Due largely to the enthusiastic response to the videoteleconference, the Berklee College of Music ultimately joined Internet2.
- March 6, 2009: AV Technology published an article on Distance Learning that featured many of the Internet2 efforts at USC.
- January 12-14, 2009: Conducted and taught the audio sessions for the Internet2/New World Symphony Performance Master Class and Production Workshop in Miami Beach, FL. I also debuted the prototype of ECHODamp at this workshop.
- November 24, 2008: Along with Greg Howe, Director of Distance Learning at the Cleveland Institute of Music and Tom Snook, Chief Technology Officer for the New World Symphony, I made a presentation on the uses of Internet2 for Musical Applications (pdf) at the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) 84th Annual Conference in Seattle WA.
- September 28, 2008: Presented But, What About the Sound? Optimizing Audio for the Musical Videoconference (pdf) to the Association for Technology in Music Instruction (ATMI) annual conference in Atlanta GA.
- May 6, 2008: Presented an Internet2 musical demonstration and performance with Van Cliburn Award winning pianist José Feghali from Texas Christian University performing for USC's annual Teaching with Technology conference.
|Making final setup adjustments in preparation for the APRU Conference held at USC in 2007. Onscreen in the background are members of the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, FL who are about to perform for the conference attendees via Internet2.|
- March 21, 2008: Presented several workshops and sessions at the Juilliard School of Music in New York City on Distance Learning for Music and Internet2 to faculty, staff, and students.
- February 25, 2008: Jim Babor, Principal Percussion with the Los Angeles Philharmonic coached percussion students at the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, FL as they prepared for upcoming orchestral auditions.
- February 11-13, 2008: Conducted and taught the audio sessions for the Internet2/New World Symphony Performance Master Class and Production Workshop in Miami Beach, FL.
- January 25, 2008: Dennis Trembly, Professor of Double Bass at USC, and Principal Bassist with the Los Angeles Philharmonic coached bass students at the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, FL as they prepared for upcoming orchestral auditions.
- January 25, 2008: Hosted the USC remote performance of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Global Concert Series transmitted via Internet2.
- December 7, 2007: Presented several workshops and sessions to the faculty, staff, and students of the Department of Theatre Arts at Bradley University in Peoria, IL on audio techniques and echo-control for tele-performances.
- October 30, 2007: Professor Susan Helfter from the USC Thornton School of Music conducted a Community Outreach workshop with musicians from the New World Symphony.
- October 12, 2007: Hosted a remote trial performance of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Global Concert Series transmitted via Internet2.
- October 8-10, 2007: Attended the Internet2 Fall Member Meeting in San Diego, CA where I participated as a member in the Performance Events Advisory Advisory Committee meeting.
- September 25, 2007: Hosted a remote trial performance of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Global Concert Series transmitted via Internet2.
|Winning the inaugural IDEA Award from Internet2 along with Tom Knab from Case Western Reserve University, Tom Snook from the New World Symphony, and Christianne Orto from the Manhattan School of Music|
- March 22, 2007: Presented our Internet2-based Distance Learning program to the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) CIO's conference.
- March, 2007: The Thornton School of Music's Internet2-based Distance Learning Program was featured in EdTech Magazine.
- February 22, 2007: The USC Thornton School of Music joined music schools around the country in a national masterclass with cellist Yo-Yo Ma presented from the stage of the New World Symphony in Miami, FL.
- January 28-30, 2007: Conducted and taught the audio sessions for the Internet2/New World Symphony Performance Master Class and Production Workshop in Miami Beach, FL.
- December 4-7, 2006: Attended the Internet2 Fall Member Meeting in Chicago, IL where I participated as a member in the Performance Events Advisory Advisory Committee meeting.
- October 19, 2006: USC Conducting students and faculty participated in a conducting masterclass with Maestro Michael Tilson Thomas, Founder and Artistic Director of the New World Symphony, Music Director of the San Francisco Symphony, and USC alum; via Internet2 from the New World Symphony's stage in Miami Beach, Florida.
- October 13, 2006: Renowned composer Joan Tower discussed and played musical examples of her works for the USC Composers Forum in anticipation of the performance of her Violin Concerto by the Thornton Symphony Orchestra at Walt Disney Concert Hall. Joan came to us via Internet2 from Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York.
- May, 2006: The USC Thornton School of Music's ASI Auditorium was chosen as one of the sites for the USC Provost's Technology Enhanced Learning Initiative. The auditorium was outfitted with audio, video, and videoconferencing equipment allowing us to dramatically increase our Distance Learning capabilities and take full advantage of the possibilities of Internet2 networking.
- April 26, 2006: Was awarded the inaugural IDEA Award from Internet2, along with Tom Knab, Case Western Reserve University; Tom Snook, New World Symphony; and Christianne Orto, Manhattan School of Music for our research collaboration in developing the protocols for teaching and performing music via high-performance networks like Internet2.
|Checking audio and video connections at the USC Thornton School of Music in preparation for remotely producing and directing "From the North to the Future" at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks|
- March 23, 2006: Produced and directed From the North to the Future, an Internet2 Day for the University of Alaska Fairbanks. That event featured presenters and performers from the USC Thornton School of Music, the New World Symphony, the University of Alaska Fairbanks as well as from the Los Angeles and San Diego areas.
- January 30-February 1, 2006: Conducted and taught the audio sessions for the Internet2/New World Symphony Performance Master Class and Production Workshop in Miami Beach, FL.
- December 2, 2005: Conducted the first Internet2 videoteleconference at the USC Thornton School of Music between us and Miami, FL, connecting architect, concert hall designer, and USC alumnus, Frank Gehry (in LA) with filmmaker, director, and actor, Sidney Pollack (in Miami) for the screening of Pollack's new documentary on Gehry at the Art Basel International Art Festival in Miami.
- November, 2005: The Thornton School of Music purchases the necessary equipment to conduct very-high-bandwidth musical videoconferences over Internet2 from within the School of Music facilities.
- September 30, 2005: Presented part of the keynote address on "Internet2 Applications in Teaching and Learning" to the Georgia State University System Southeastern Scholarship Conference on E-Learning.
- September 19-22, 2005: Attended the Internet2 Fall Member Meeting in Philadelphia, PA where I participated as a member in the Performance Events Advisory Advisory Committee meeting.
- August, 2005: Joined the faculty of the Flora L. Thornton School of Music at the University of Southern California, bringing my connections and experience in musical videoteleconferencing and advanced-network, distance learning programs to USC.
|Native American Youth from Los Angeles in the Bing Theatre at USC join the Stomp Dance via Internet2 with dancers from the Tahlahvse Ceremonial Grounds in Oklahoma|
- February, 2005: Sponsored by the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center, I made a series of presentations to faculty and staff at the University of Alaska Fairbanks on the subjects of High-Bandwidth Videoconferencing and Audio for Videoconferencing.
- January, 2005: Presented workshops on Audio and Echo Control to the 2005 Performance and Masterclass Production Workshop hosted by the New World Symphony.
- September 28, 2004: Presented my research on Echo Control in the Musical Videoconference to the Internet2 Fall Members Meeting in Austin, TX.
- January 14, 2004: Presented—via Internet2—a session on Audio for Musical Videoconferences to the 2004 Performance and Masterclass Production Workshop hosted by the New World Symphony.
- March 28, 2003: Presented—via Internet2—a session on Audio for Musical Videoconferences to the 2003 Performance Production Workshop hosted by the New World Symphony.
- October 29, 2002: The OU School of Music presented Stomp Dance—the Gathering of the Tribes to the 2002 Internet2 Member's Meeting in Los Angeles. In this demonstration, Creek Tribal dancers in Oklahoma taught the basics of the "Stomp Dance" to Native American youth living in the southern California area, and then danced together with them.
- September 1, 2002: Received a grant from the OU Research Council to upgrade the Litton CAMVision-2 codec to a Star Valley codec offering inter-compatibility with other MPEG-2 codecs as well as the ability to stream uncompressed audio and video, thus nearly eliminating the delay inherent in most videoconferences.
- January 29, 2002: The OU School of Music collaborated with the Manhattan School of Music and Columbia University for Broadway Local -- Exploring The Nitty-Gritty of a Musical Theater Career and the Auditions It Takes to Have One.
|In the Broadway Local event, Music Theater students from the Manhattan School of Music and the University of Oklahoma worked together to perfect their singing and acting technique|
- October 1-5, 2001: Due to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Fall Internet2 Member’s Meeting was replaced by a Virtual Member’s Meeting conducted over video and telephone conference. I was scheduled to participate in several presentations and discussions at the meeting in Austin, Texas. One of my presentations concerning the archiving and dissemination of non-traditional theses and dissertations via Internet2 was given in a telephone conference.
- July 18-19, 2001: Made several “virtual” musical and verbal presentations to visitors at the Ann Arbor Arts Fair in Ann Arbor, Michigan via Internet2.
- July 11-12, 2001: Taught “Videoconference Audio Techniques” to participants from approximately 40 Internet2 Member Universities at the Internet2 Video Production Workshop in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
- June 7, 2001: Along with several other members of the Internet2 community, I participated in a panel discussion on “Arts and Humanities Uses of High-Bandwidth Internet Videoconferencing” at the INET2001 conference in Stockholm, Sweden.
- May 10, 2001: Erin Dunn, Master’s Cello Student at the University of Oklahoma participated in an Internet2 private lesson taught by David Geber, Professor of Cello at the Manhattan School of Music in New York. This lesson was subsequently featured on NY1 Television and in The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- November 20, 2000: Dr. Sally Faulconer, Dr. Kenneth Fuchs and I demonstrated the capabilities and potential of Internet2 in the teaching of music at the NASM conference in San Diego. My article Teaching Music Through Advanced Network Videoconferencing (pdf) was subsequently published in Proceedings, the official journal of the National Association of Schools of Music.
|Working with Bob Riddle and Mike LaHaye of Internet2 to resolve a network issue prior to the Internet2 Performance Event at the Rialto Theatre in Atlanta, GA|
- October 28-November 2, 2000: Presented a talk entitled Musical Developments on Internet2—Where We’ve Been, Where We’re Going (pdf) at the annual Internet2 Member’s Meeting in Atlanta. In addition to my presentation, the OU Symphony Orchestra made a virtual appearance at the Rialto Performance Event performing Mussorgsky’s Night on Bald Mountain and the Oklahoma Brass Quintet performed two selections with four players in Norman and one in Atlanta via Internet2 Videoteleconference.
- September 25-28, 2000: In a demonstration of the musical capabilities of advanced networks, The OU School of Music provided streaming video and audio content to the iLabs portion of the Networld+Interop technology show in Atlanta.
- Summer, 2000: Dr. Eugene Enrico, Dr. James Faulconer and I, along with undergraduate students Hunter Cadzow and Justin Moser, conducted further research on the musical applications of Internet2 with the help of a National Science Foundation "Research Experience for Undergraduates" grant. Specific areas studied were the streaming of high-quality video and the real-time streaming of MIDI data.
- April 27, 2000: Felicia Moye coached violinists of the New World Symphony in Miami via videoconference and several of her students auditioned for the New World Symphony's Music Director (and USC alum), Michael Tilson Thomas.
- March 8, 2000: The School of Music participated in OU's Internet2 Awareness Day. We presented our Videoconference Master Class and fielded questions on its capabilities.
- February 2, 2000: Made several Internet2 presentations to the faculty and administration at Temple University on behalf of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
- January 19, 2000: Felicia Moye participated in the University of Delaware's Internet2 Awareness Day. She performed and collaborated with Lloyd Shorter, Professor of Oboe at UD, through the Litton CAMVision-2 codec. Part of her presentation was to explain to the audience how she taught using the technology and to give them ideas about how they could use it.
- December 15, 1999: Conducted a videoconference demonstration with the Manhattan School of Music and Columbia University. One of the initial goals in developing this technology was to expose students to some of the world's finest musicians and teachers. This demonstration gave us the opportunity to work with Patinka Kopec, Professor of Violin at the Manhattan School of Music, who worked with a several of our string students. It also gave us the opportunity to fully test the audio capabilities of the system, since we had audio engineering experts at both ends. Our final assessment was that the audio quality was quite good.
|Felicia Moye, violin at the University of Oklahoma works with Lloyd Shorter (on video monitor), oboe at the University of Delaware. Corey Jackson (in background) monitors the network stream|
- December 8, 1999: As a result of the Seattle presentation of October 12th, I was asked to make a similar demonstration at the Internet2 Technical Meeting in Miami, Florida. Additionally, I gave a talk on the capabilities of using MPEG-2 videoconferencing via Internet2 for teaching music.
- October 25, 1999: With money from the Provost’s Office at OU and EPSCoR, the OU School of Music was able to purchase a complete Litton CAMVision-2 Node unit.
- October 20, 1999: Repeated the October 12th Violin Master Class Demonstration on the OU campus so faculty and administrators could see the possibilities of the technology.
- October 12, 1999: Demonstrated the very first music Master Class using uncompressed audio and video over Internet2 at the Internet2 Fall Member Meeting in Seattle, Washington. In that demonstration, Felicia Moye, Professor of Violin at OU, taught one of her students located back in Oklahoma.
- Summer, 1999: Received loaner MPEG2 codecs from Litton Systems to test my concepts of Internet2-based musical videoconferencing.
- Summer, 1998: In an attempt to bring larger numbers of world-class artists to our music students at the University of Oklahoma School of Music, I began research into Internet-based videoteleconference systems.